This large multicentre trial in 11 US states, and sponsored by Australian company Mesoblast, is assessing the safety and effectiveness of donated cells (termed MPC-mesenchymal progenitor cells) in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. The trial expects to recruit 60 participants suffering from type 2 diabetes that is not being properly controlled by current medication. The patients will be divided into three groups and given either a placebo (no cells) or different doses of donated Mesenchymal Precursor Cells. The participants will be assessed for complications and for changes in the control of their diabetes.